Self-determination was one of the reasons for the establishment of the League of Nations. It meant the right of a county to decide who should rule them. Woodrow Wilson wanted to give minority groups self-determination as he believed that strong feeling of nationalism was one of the factors that had contributed to WW1. So at Versailles, in the various treaties signed with the different defeated countries, territories were taken away from Germany, Austria and Russia, and given self-rule. For example, Italy’s frontier was adjusted to include non-Turkish people from Austria-Hungary and the Turkish empire. In addition, Czechoslovakia and Armenia were established. Based on the principles of democracy, Wilson believed that these minority groups should have the opportunity to be independent and deserved to have their own states. Thus, the map of Europe was redrawn to fulfill his aim that came with the establishment of the League.
Another reason for the League of Nations was collective security. Wilson wanted this idea to be formed so that it could prevent the outbreak of another war by applying the concept of collective security and a set of international laws that would help to resolve conflicts through peaceful measures rather than use of force or military methods. One of the League’s tasks was to enforce world disarmament, beginning with the military restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles on Germany. The size of the German army and navy was reduced and she was not allowed to have tanks, submarines and an airforce. The rationale is that, with these military restrictions, Germany could never again threaten the peace of Europe again and this would help to safeguard world peace. Hence, with collective security, it would be aimed to resolve international problems through negotiation, arms reduction and, as a last resort, to use force against countries that committed acts of aggressions against others.
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